By Federico L. Agnolín, Fernando E. Novas (auth.)
Although consensus exists between researchers that birds advanced from coelurosaurian theropods, paleontologists nonetheless debate the identity of the crowd of coelurosaurians that the majority heavily methods the typical ancestor of birds. The final twenty years witnessed the invention of a wide range of avian-like theropods that has significantly amplified the anatomical disparity between deinonychosaurians, a few of which resemble Archaeopteryx greater than Deinonychus. between those newly chanced on theropods that exhibit striking bird-like features are the four-winged theropods Microraptor and Anchiornis, and the unenlagiids Unenlagia, Buitreraptor, and Rahonavis. A strange team of minute-sized coelurosaurs, the Scansoriopterygidae, additionally indicates a few avian similarities that lead a few authors to interpret them as extra heavily with regards to birds than different dinosaurs. With the purpose to discover the phylogenetic relationships of those coelurosaurians and birds, we merged lately released integrative databases, leading to major adjustments within the topological distribution of taxa inside of Paraves. We current facts that Dromaeosauridae, Microraptoria, Unenlagiidae, and Anchiornis + Xiaotingia shape successive sister taxa of Aves, and that the Scansoriopterygidae are basal coelurosaurians no longer heavily relating to birds. the consequences within the evolutionary series of anatomical characters resulting in birds, together with the starting place of flight, also are thought of in gentle of this new phylogenetic hypothesis.
Read or Download Avian Ancestors: A Review of the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis and Scansoriopterygidae PDF
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Additional resources for Avian Ancestors: A Review of the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis and Scansoriopterygidae
From the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America. PlosOne 6:e24487 Zhang F, Zhou Z (2000) A primitive enantiornithine bird and the origin of feathers. Science 290:1955–1959 Zhang F, Zhou Z, Xu X, Wang X (2002) A juvenile coelurosaurian theropod from China indicates arboreal habits. Naturwissenschaften 89:394–398 Zhang F, Zhou Z, Xu X, Wang X, Sullivan C (2008) A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers. Nature 455:1105–1108 Zheng X, Xu X, You H, Zhao Q, Dong Z (2009) A short-armed dromaeosaurid from the Jehol Group of China with implications for early dromaeosaurid evolution.
This combination of traits allow us to assign Luanchuanraptor to Averaptora. Moreover, this genus shows a large fenestra on the coracoid, a synapomorphic condition of Microraptoria (Zheng et al. 2009), suggesting the assignment of Luanchuanraptor to that clade. F. L. Agnolín and F. E. 3 Hulsanpes perlei It was described by Osmólska (1982) on the basis of a single and incomplete foot from the Latest Cretaceous of Mongolia. This taxon was referred with doubts to Dromaeosauridae by Osmólska (1982), a criteria followed by Norell and Makovicky (2004).
The fourth character is of ambiguous distribution. In fact, the distal end of the ischium of Archaeopteryx clearly exhibits a distal notch between the obturator process and ischial shaft. However, this condition cannot be properly observed in Xiaotingia, in which the distal end of ischium is not completely preserved; moreover, the preserved portion of the bone suggests that a distal notch was probably absent. In the same way, the preserved distal ischium of Anchiornis clearly lacks a distal notch, and its morphology is very similar to that of other averaptorans, including Buitreraptor and Sinornithosaurus (Xu et al.
Avian Ancestors: A Review of the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis and Scansoriopterygidae by Federico L. Agnolín, Fernando E. Novas (auth.)