By Julian Brash
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Extra resources for Bloomberg's New York: Class and Governance in the Luxury City
Unlike the tcc, the pmc has been tightly linked to the production of neoliberal urban space. The postindustrialization of urban economies that has accompanied neoliberalization and the construction of transnational capitalism has generated numerous opportunities for the pmc, giving it an increasingly pronounced presence in cities, and especially in global or quasi-global American cities like Chicago, Miami, and New York. Indeed, the specifically urban nature of many of the industries in which pmc employment is concentrated has been crucial to the recent development of this class.
I begin by providing background on the 1970s fiscal crisis, its class protagonists, its resolution, and the new priorities for urban governance that emerged from it. Then I turn to the neoliberalization process, focusing on politics and the local state in turn. I call attention to both the successful establishment of neoliberal governmental norms and the limitations and contradictions of neoliberalization, as both were crucial to Michael Bloomberg’s political rise. I then discuss the processes of class transformation that emerged in the post–fiscal crisis period, as economic transformations facilitated by shifts in the city’s governance helped constitute an ascendant postindustrial elite whose members eventually became agents of the Bloomberg Way.
Annual spending increases have been the norm since the early 1980s, and even spending on redistribution, social services, and other “unproductive” functions has been maintained, and even expanded, in the post–fiscal crisis era (Brecher and Horton 1991; Mollenkopf 1992, 9; Mollenkopf 2003, 122; Shefter 1992, 195–199). Likewise, while municipal unions were chastened during the fiscal crisis period and had to make numerous concessions, they continued to provide their members with relatively generous wages and benefits and strong job protections (Freeman 2000, 324–325).
Bloomberg's New York: Class and Governance in the Luxury City by Julian Brash