By Ravi Kalia
Initiated in 1949, Chandigarh is the main obvious instance of a deliberate urban in India. right here, Kalia offers a historical past of its making plans and improvement, concentrating on the key figures concerned. This up-to-date version contains a new advent and a brand new epilogue which relate the goals of the Indian government's unique plans, and the imaginative and prescient and layout of Le Corbusier, to present-day Chandigarh. The e-book continues to be the prime learn of the expansion and improvement of this interesting urban.
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Additional info for Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City
Kornhauser (1982: 16 The legacy of the Tokugawa period 76) has argued persuasively that the continued growth and economic success until the present of many of the castle towns established during the early seventeenth century provides strong evidence of the care put into site selection for the new settlements. The castle towns thus formed the administrative and military centres of the feudal domains, which numbered about 260 by the end of the 1600s. The rapid economic growth of the century was then focused on this limited number of locations, as commercial and handicraft activities grew to support the samurai populations of the castle towns, which became great commercial centres and developed their own distinctive urban culture (see McClain 1982; Nishiyama 1997).
All other requirements were met by local communities themselves, usually at the level of the neighbourhood. Similarly, in the domains the castle towns may have been the seat of the domain government, but that administration was concerned more with the entire domain than the urban area, and normally only about 10 per cent of domain populations lived in the castle town. The fragmented spatial, social and administrative structure of cities in the Tokugawa period has had deep ramifications. It was first and foremost an extremely effective means of social control, as it divided the commoner population into manageable blocks, each of which was run in the image of a family unit, as were the rural villages on which the system was based.
The Bakufu confiscated the land and provided the landowners with substitute plots in another location. Although in the following decades the Bakufu steadfastly maintained its claim of ownership, and all involved maintained the increasingly obvious fiction that the area still functioned as a firebreak, over a period of about a century the area became fully built up with merchant housing, commercial stalls, warehouses, stables, archery stalls and tea houses (see also Jinnai 1990: 130). The story is an interesting one and is instructive of the realities of spatial control in Edo.
Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City by Ravi Kalia