By Jacques Bradwejn M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Eero Vasar M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)
This booklet is set the position of cholecystokinin (CCK) within the neurobiology of hysteria and panic assaults. An updated assessment of the subject is given in a multidisciplinary viewpoint starting from neurochemistry to human habit. This quantity is both informative to uncomplicated and scientific scientists.
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Additional resources for Cholecystokinin and Anxiety: From Neuron to Behavior
Rajkowski J, Kubiak P, Aston-Jones G. Activity of locus ceruleus neurones in behaving monkeys varies with focused attention: short- and long-term changes. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1992; 18:538. 30. Woods SW, Charney DS. Biological responses to panic anxiety elicited by nonpharmacologic means. In: Ballenger JC, ed. Neurobiology of panic disorder. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1990:205-217. 31. Ko GN, Elsworth JD, Roth RH et al. Panic-induced elevation of plasma MHPG levels in phobic-anxious patients: effects of clonidine and imipramine.
7_ Schematic illustration of the biosynthesis cholecystokinin in neurons. The structure of preprocholecystokinin is illustrated as the bar in the upper part of the figure. 38 Cholecystokinin and Anxiety: from Neuron to Behavior the single precursor for the two enzymes necessary for amidation. 4649 These enzymes remove glyoxylate from the immediate precursors, the glycine-extended CCKs, to complete the synthesis of bioactive a-carboxyamidated peptides (Fig. 1). As a result of the elaborate biosynthetic pathway, CCK neurons release a heterogeneous mixture of proCCK products from the mature vesicles.
Schmauss M, Laakman G, Dieterle D. 2-receptor blockade in addition to tricyclic antidepressants in therapy-resistant depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988; 8:108-111. 18. Papp LA, Klein DF, Gorman JM. Carbon dioxide hypersensitivity, hyperventilation and panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150:1149-1157. 19. Gorman JM, Goetz RR, Dillon D. Sodium D-lactate infusion in panic disorder patients. Neuropsychopharmacol 1990; 3:181-189. 20. Anderson WC, Wetzler S. Five percent carbon dioxide challenge: valid analogue and marker of panic disorder?
Cholecystokinin and Anxiety: From Neuron to Behavior by Jacques Bradwejn M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Eero Vasar M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)